Thursday, May 31, 2012
May 31, 1279 BC – Ramses II (The Great, 19th dynasty) became pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.526 A devastating earthquake struck Antioch, Turkey, killing 250,000. 1076 The execution of Waltheof of Northumbria ended the 'Revolt of the Earls' against William the Conqueror. 1443 Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII of England, was born. 1495 Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England, died. 1859 Big Ben, located atop St. Stephen's tower, went into operation in London, ringing out over the Houses of Parliament in Westminster, London for the first time.
Wednesday, May 30, 2012
May 30, 70 Siege of Jerusalem: Titus and his Roman legions breached the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish wars financed the construction of the Flavian Amphitheater, which took ten years to build. 1381 English Boer uprising began in Essex. 1431 French heroine Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake in Rouen by the English. 1536 King Henry VIII of England married Jane Seymour, a lady-in-waiting to his first two wives. 1593 Leading Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe was stabbed to death in a pub brawl in Deptford.
Tuesday, May 29, 2012
May 29, 363 Roman Emperor Julian defeated the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Sassanid capital, but was unable to take the city. 1167 Battle of Monte Porzio – A Roman army supporting Pope Alexander III was defeated by Christian of Buch and Rainald of Dassel. 1176 Battle of Legnano: The Lombard League defeated Emperor Frederick I. 1259 King Christopher I of Denmark died. 1414 Council of Constance. 1453 The Roman Empire in the east (Byzantine Empire) came to an end as Ottoman sultan Mehmet II captured Constantinople. 1660 Charles II arrived in London from exile in the Netherlands to reclaim his throne. Charles II was also born on this day.
Monday, May 28, 2012
May 28, 585 BC A solar eclipse occurred, as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes was battling Cyaxares in the Battle of the Eclipse, leading to a truce. This was one of the cardinal dates from which other dates can be calculated. 1291 Acre, in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell to the Moslems, ending the Crusades. 1503 James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor were married according to a Papal Bull by Pope Alexander VI. A Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England signed on that occasion resulted in a peace that lasted ten years. 1588 The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, set sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel. (It would take until May 30 for all ships to leave port).
Sunday, May 27, 2012
May 27, 366 Procopius, Roman usurper against Valens, and member of the Constantinian dynasty was executed. 1153 Malcolm IV became King of Scotland. 1199 King John I of England crowned. 1328 King Philip VI of France crowned. 1564 John Calvin, one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
Saturday, May 26, 2012
May 26, 17 Germanicus returned to Rome as a conquering hero; he celebrated a triumph for his victories over the Cherusci, Chatti and other German tribes west of the Elbe. 451 Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire took place. The Empire defeated the Armenians militarily but guaranteed them freedom to openly practice Christianity. 604 St Augustine died. The Benedictine monk became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church. 961 German King Otto II was crowned.
Friday, May 25, 2012
May 25, 585 BC Thales of Greece made the first known prediction of a solar eclipse. 735 The Venerable Bede died. 946 Edmund the Older, king of Wessex (939-46), died. 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. 1420 Henry the Navigator was appointed governor of the Order of Christ. 1521 The Diet of Worms ended when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Edict of Worms, which declared Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther an outlaw. 1659 Oliver Cromwell's son Richard resigned as Lord Protector of England.
Thursday, May 24, 2012
May 24, 1153 David I, king of Scotland (1124-53), died, and Malcolm IV became king of Scotland. 1218 The Fifth Crusade left Acre for Egypt. 1337 The Hundred Years War between England and France began when France confiscated Gascony from Edward III. 1487 The ten-year-old Lambert Simnel was crowned in Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland with the name of Edward VI in a bid to threaten King Henry VII's reign. 1543 Astronomer Nicolas Copernicus died.
Wednesday, May 23, 2012
May 23, 1275 King Edward I of England ordered the cessation of persecution of French Jews. 1430 Joan of Arc was captured at Compiegne & sold to the British. 1498 Girolamo Savonarola was burned at the stake in Florence, Italy, on the orders of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). 1533 The marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
Tuesday, May 22, 2012
May 22, 334 BC – The Macedonian army of Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. 337 Constantine the Great, the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity died. 760 - 14th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. 1377 Pope Gregory XI issued five papal bulls to denounce the doctrines of English theologian John Wycliffe. 1455 Wars of the Roses: at the First Battle of St Albans, Richard, Duke of York, defeated and captured King Henry VI of England.
Monday, May 21, 2012
May 21, on this day The Agonalia was held. It was held on January 9th, March 17th, May 21st, and December 11th. On each day a ram was sacrificed, probably as an offering to Janus. 685 English settlement was halted at the Firth of Forth when Picts defeated Northumbrians at Nachtansmere. 878 Syracuse, Italy was captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. 996 Sixteen-year-old Otto III, king of Germany and fourth ruler of the Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 987 Louis V, last Carlovingian King of France (966-987), died. 1420 Charles VI ceded France to Henry V of England in the Treaty of Troyes, after Henry's victory at Agincourt. 1471 King Henry VI was killed in the Tower of London. Edward IV took the throne. 1481 Christian I, king of Denmark/Norway/Sweden, died. 1553 English Lady Jane Grey married Guildford Dudley.
Sunday, May 20, 2012
May 20, 325 Roman emperor Constantine called the Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical Christian council. 526 An earthquake killed about 300,000 people in Syria and Antiochia. 685 The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere was fought between a Pictish army under King Bridei III and the invading Northumbrians under King Ecgfrith, who were decisively defeated. 1217 The Second Battle of Lincoln was fought near Lincoln, England, resulting in the defeat of Prince Louis of France by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke.
Saturday, May 19, 2012
May 19, 715 Gregory II was elected Roman Catholic pope. 804 Alcuin of York, English scholar, died in Tours France. He was welcomed at the Palace School of Charlemagne in Aachen where he remained during the 780's and 790's. 988 Dunstanus, English archbishop of Canterbury, died. 1102 Stephen II, Count of Blois, the father of Stephen of England, died. 1499 Catherine of Aragon (age 13), was married by proxy to Arthur Tudor (age 12), Prince of Wales. 1536 Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England, was beheaded for adultery, treason, and incest. 1568 Queen Elizabeth I of England ordered the arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Friday, May 18, 2012
May 18, 1096 Crusaders massacred Jews of Worms, Germany. 1268 The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch. 1291 The last Christian stronghold of Acre fell to the Sultan of Egypt. 1268 The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, fell to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars in the Battle of Antioch. 1291 the Crusaders abandoned Tyre to the Moslems, the prelude to the end of the final Crusade. 1152 Henry II of England married Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Thursday, May 17, 2012
May 17, 218 - 7th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. 352 Liberius elected Pope, replacing Julius I. 884 St Adrian III began his reign as Catholic Pope. 1220 King Henry III of England Crowned for a second time. Henry, who had been crowned at age nine four years earlier, underwent a second coronation at Westminster. 1521 Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, was executed for treason. 1536 George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford and four other men were executed for treason. 1590 Anne of Denmark was crowned Queen of Scotland.
Wednesday, May 16, 2012
May 16, 218 Julia Maesa, aunt of the assassinated Caracalla, was banished to her home in Syria by the self-proclaimed emperor Macrinus and declared her 14-year old grandson Elagabalus, emperor of Rome. 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry Anjou, handing the future king of England most of France. 1204 Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders was crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. 1527 The Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and Florence re-established itself as a republic. 1532 Sir Thomas More resigned as Lord Chancellor of England. 1568 Mary, Queen of Scots, fled to England.
Tuesday, May 15, 2012
May 15, 1213 King John named Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury after submitting to the Pope's authority and offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs, which resulted in Pope Innocent III lifting the interdict of 1208. 1252 Pope Innocent IV issued the papal bull ad exstirpanda, which authorized, but also limited, the torture of heretics in the Medieval Inquisition. 1265 Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy, was born. 1536 Anna Boleyn and Lord Rochford stood trial on the charges of adultery/incest. 1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, married James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, her third husband. 1649 The 'Rump Parliament' under Oliver Cromwell declared England a 'commonwealth' or free state.
Monday, May 14, 2012
Sunday, May 13, 2012
May 13, 1497 Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia) excommunicated Girolamo Savonarola (Italian Dominican friar and an influential contributor to the politics of Florence. Savonarola vehemently preached against the moral corruption of much of the clergy at the time, and his main opponent was Rodrigo Borgia). 1515 Mary Tudor, Queen of France and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk were officially married at Greenwich. 1568 Battle of Langside: the forces of Mary, Queen of Scots, were defeated by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother. 1637 Cardinal Richelieu of France created the table knife.
Saturday, May 12, 2012
May 12, 254 Pope Stephen I succeeded Pope Lucius I as the 23rd pope. He was beheaded while celebrating Mass during Emperor Valerian's persecution of Christians. 1191 Richard I of England married Berengaria of Navarre. 1215 English barons served an ultimatum on King John. 1264 The Battle of Lewes, between King Henry III of England and the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, began. 1588 King Henry III fled Paris after Henry of Guise triumphantly entered the city. 1641 Thomas Wentworth, chief advisor to Charles I, was beheaded in the Tower of London.
Friday, May 11, 2012
May 11, 330 Constantinople was dedicated as the new capital of the Roman Empire during the reign of Constantine the Great. 482 Justinian I (the Great) was born. He was Byzantine (East Roman) emperor AD 527-565 who collected Roman laws under one code known as the Justinian Code. 1310 In France fifty-four members of the Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics. 1559 Religious reformer John Knox ignited the Scottish Reformation with a sermon at Perth, Scotland.
Thursday, May 10, 2012
May 10, 70 Siege of Jerusalem: Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian, opened a full-scale assault on Jerusalem and attacked the city's Third Wall to the northwest. 238 Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, the Thracian, Roman Emperor, was murdered. 946 Agapetus II elected pope. His pontificate is noted for the spread of Christianity in Denmark. 1291 Scottish nobles recognized the authority of Edward I of England.
Wednesday, May 9, 2012
May 9, 1457 BC Battle of Megiddo between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh. It was the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail. 1012 BC Solar Eclipse seen at Ugarit (ancient Syrian port city on the Mediterranean Sea). 328 Athanasius was elected Patriarch bishop of Alexandria. 1092 Lincoln Cathedral, one of the most important medieval cathedrals in England, was consecrated. 1386 England and Portugal signed the Treaty of Windsor, the oldest alliance in Europe still in force. 1671 The crown jewels were briefly stolen from the Tower of London by Irish adventurer Colonel Thomas Blood.
Tuesday, May 8, 2012
May 8, 589 – Reccared (reigned 586–601) was Visigothic King of Hispania, Septimania and Galicia summoned the Third Council of Toledo. The council enacted restrictions on Jews, and the conversion of the country to Christianity led to repeated persecutions of Jews. 1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI. 1521 Parliament of Worms installed an Imperial edict against Marten Luther, which denounced the monk and commanded that all his works be burned. 1559 An act of supremacy defined Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the Church of England. 1660 Parliament proclaimed Charles II king of England, restoring the monarchy after more than a decade.
Monday, May 7, 2012
May 7, 558 The Hagia Sophia (in Constantinople) collapsed. Justinian I immediately ordered that the dome be rebuilt. 1274 in France, the Second Council of Lyons opened, which addressed the union of the Eastern and Western churches, regulating the election of the Pope and church reform. 1348 Charles University in Prague (Universitas Carolina/Univerzita Karlova) was established as the first university in Central Europe. 1429 English siege of Orleans broken by Joan of Arc.
Sunday, May 6, 2012
May 6 973 Henry II (the Saint), the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty, was born. 1527 Spanish and German troops sacked Rome, ending the Renaissance. 147 Swiss Guards, including their commander, died fighting the forces of Charles V in order to allow Pope Clement VII to escape into Castel Sant'Angelo. 1536 King Henry VIII ordered English language Bibles to be placed in every church.
Saturday, May 5, 2012
May 5, 311 Gaius VM Galerius, emperor of Rome, died. 553 The Second Council of Constantinople began. 984 Gerberga of Saxony, Queen of Western Francia died. 1215 Rebel barons renounced their allegiance to King John of England, which led to the signing of the Magna Carta. 1640 King Charles I of England dissolved the Short Parliament.
Friday, May 4, 2012
May 4, 1256 The Augustinian monastic order was constituted at the Lecceto Monastery in Tuscany when Pope Alexander IV issued a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae. 1415 Religious reformers John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were condemned as heretics at the Council of Constance. 1471 Wars of the Roses: the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians at the battle of Tewkesbury. 1493 Pope Alexander VI divided the New World between Spain and Portugal along the Line of Demarcation
Thursday, May 3, 2012
May 3 612 Constantine III, Byzantine Emperor was born. 996 Gregory V was consecrated as pope. His pontificate was brief and turbulent, and was interrupted by the installation of John XVI as antipope. 1415 Cecily Neville, mother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England was born. 1469 Niccolo Machiavelli was born.
Wednesday, May 2, 2012
May 2, 1194 King Richard I of England gave Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. 1230 William de Braose (Marcher lord detested by the Welsh) was hanged by Prince Llywelyn the Great. 1519 Leonardo da Vinci died. 1536 Anne Boleyn, Queen of England, was arrested and imprisoned on charges of adultery, incest, treason and witchcraft. 1559 John Knox returned from exile to Scotland to become the leader of the beginning Scottish Reformation. 1568 Mary, Queen of Scots, escaped from Loch Leven Castle.
Tuesday, May 1, 2012
May 1, Festival of Juno occurred on this day. 193 Pertinax became emperor. 305 Diocletian and Maximian retired from the office of Roman Emperor. 408 Theodosius II succeeded to the throne of Constantinople. 1006 Supernova observed by Chinese & Egyptians in constellation Lupus. 1045 Pope Benedict IX sold the papacy to John Gratianus, Gregory VI. 1316 Edward Bruce was crowned King of Ireland. 1328 Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - the Kingdom of England recognized the Kingdom of Scotland as an independent state.